Ethnicity & Disease/Volume 18, Number 2


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The Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) program in the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) is congressionally mandated and was initiated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1985. The program was developed in part as a vehicle to address some of the key disparities in health outcomes for minority Americans noted in the landmark report commissioned by the former Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Dr. Margaret Heckler in 1985. The authorizing legislation for the RCMI program sponsored by both Congressmen Louis Stokes and William Natcher, appropriated funds to expand the nation’s capacity for research in the health sciences by assisting, through competitive grant support, predominantly minority institutions that award doctorates in the health or health-related sciences to strengthen their research infrastructure.

The primary goal is to enable these institutions to become more competitive in obtaining support to conduct biomedical and/or behavioral research relevant to the mission of the Public Health Service. Over the course of twenty-three years, the National Center for Research Resources has funded 21 academic institutions, including 10 graduate schools, 7 medical schools, 3 schools of pharmacy, and 1 school of veterinary medicine via the RCMI program. In addition, several Institutes and Centers at the NIH have facilitated the growth and success of the RCMI program via co-funding and other collaborative relationships including the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Institute on Aging; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; National Institute on Drug Abuse; National Eye Institute; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Human Genome Research Institute; National Institute of Mental Health; and the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities. This critical funding has resulted in an increase in the number of minority institutions with funded research centers conducting cutting edge translational research addressing health disparities.

Foreword: Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI): Current Science
Editors: Sidney McNairy, PhD, DSc; Shelia McClure, PhD


Disruption of the p53-Mdm2 Complex by Nutlin-3 Reveals Different Cancer Cell Phenotypes
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Nicoleta C. Arva, MD, PhD; Kathryn E. Talbott, MPH; Danielle R. Okoro, BS; Angelika Brekman, BS; Wei Gang Qiu, PhD; Jill Bargonetti, PhD

The Fused TrpEG from Streptomyces venezuelae is an Anthranilate Synthase, Not a 2-Amino-4-deoxyisochorismate (ADIC) Synthase
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Meseret Ashenafi, PhD; Renee Carrington, BS; Alvin C. Collins, BS; W. Malcolm Byrnes, PhD

HIV-1 Nef Protein Is Secreted into Vesicles That Can Fuse with Target Cells and Virions
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Tamika D. Campbell, BS; Mahfuz Khan, MS; Ming-Bo Huang, MD; Vincent Craig Bond, PhD; Michael D. Powell, PhD

Visceral Sensory Neurons that Innervate Both Uterus and Colon Express Nociceptive TRPV1 and P2X3 Receptors in Rats
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Victor V. Chaban, PhD

Computing Differential Sample Size for Case-Control Studies of Gene-Environment Interaction
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Jimmy Thomas Efird, PhD, MSc; Mi-Kyung Hong, MPH

Apoptotic Peptides Derived from HIV-1 Nef Induce Lymphocyte Depletion in Mice
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Ming-Bo Huang, MD; Cleve O. James, PhD; Michael D. Powell, PhD; Vincent C. Bond, PhD

Mitochondrial DNA Deletions in Skin from Melanoma Patients
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Karen Hubbard, PhD; Mark L. Steinberg, PhD; Helene Hill, PhD; Irene Orlow, PhD

The Expression of Growth Factors and Their Receptors in Retinal and Endothelial Cells Cocultured in the Rotating Bioreactor
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Ravindra Kumar, PhD; Sandra Harris-Hooker, PhD; Gary L. Sanford, PhD

Coadministration of Estrogen and Progesterone Differentially Affects Locomotor Responses to Cocaine in Rats
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Tipyamol Niyomchai, PhD; Karen Weirstall, PhD; Shirzad Jenab, PhD; Vanya Quin˜ones-Jenab, PhD

Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Correlation of Urinary Transforming Growth Factor-b1 with Blood Hemoglobin A1C in the Atascosa Diabetes Study
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Marco A. Riojas, MS; Rosa E. Villanueva-Vedia, PhD; Rogelio Zamilpa, PhD; Xiao Chen, MS; Liem C. Du, MD; Clyde F. Phelix, PhD; Richard G. LeBaron, PhD

P-Glycoprotein Expression in HTLV-III Cells after Treatment with HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors
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Marý´a del C. Sa´nchez, MPH; Pablo Lo´pez, BS; Rosa Ve´lez, BS; Yasuhiro Yamamura, PhD

Bioluminescent Animal Models of Human Breast Cancer for Tumor Biomass Evaluation and Metastasis Detection
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Liang Shan, MD, PhD; Songping Wang, PhD; Alexandru Korotcov, PhD; Rajagopalan Sridhar, PhD; Paul C. Wang, PhD

E-Cadherin Gene Alterations in Gastric Cancers in Different Ethnic
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Mark L. Steinberg, PhD; Bor-Jang Hwang, MS; Laura Tang, MD; Manish A. Shah, MD

A New Procedure for the Quantitative Assessment of P-Glycoprotein Efflux Pump Associated with Human T Lymphocytes
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Rosa Ve´lez, BS; Marý ´a del C. Sa´nchez, MPH; Pablo Lopez, BS; Yasuhiro Yamamura, PhD

Effects of RU 486 and Tamoxifen on Cocaine-Induced Behavioral and Endocrinologic Activations in Male and Female Fischer
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Hui-Bing Katie Wu, PhD; Tipyamol Niyomchai, PhD; Eugene Festa, PhD; AnaChristina E. Minerly, PhD; Karen Weierstall, PhD; Deirtra Hunter, MA; Weilun Sun, MA; Jan Weiner, BA; Shirzad Jenab, PhD; Vanya Quinones-Jenab, PhD

Cytotoxicity of Etidronic Acid to Human Breast Cancer Cells
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Yanfei Zhou, PhD; Desta Beyene, PhD; Renshu Zhang, MD; Alemayehu Kassa, PhD; Ebrahim Ashayeri, MD; Rajagopalan Sridhar, PhD

How Roadway Pollutants Affect
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Student Researcher: Fabio Coartney, Lathrop High School


Correlates of Readiness to Change Problem Drinking among a Sample of Problem Drinkers Receiving Care from an Inner-City Emergency
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Fernando Antelo, MD; Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD; Chizobam Ani, MD, MPH; Mohsen Bazargan, PhD

Profile of Puerto Rican HIV/AIDS Patients with Early and Non-Early Initiation of Injection Drug Use
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Doris V. Ba´ez Feliciano, MS; Marý´a A.Go´mez, PhD; Diana M. Ferna´ndez-Santos, EdD; Rafael Quintana, MPH; Eddy Rios-Olivares, MPH, PhD; Robert F. Hunter-Mellado, MD

Correlates of Self-Diagnosis of Chronic Medical and Mental Health Conditions in Under-Served African American and Latino Populations
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Chizobam Ani, MD, MPH; Mohsen Bazargan, PhD; Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD;
Ronald M. Andersen, PhD; David W. Hindman, PhD; Richard S. Baker, MD

Disparities in the Receipt of Cardiac Revascularization Procedures between Blacks and Whites: an Analysis of Secular Trends
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C. Perry Brown, DrPH; Levi Ross, PhD; Ivette Lopez, PhD; Angela Thornton, PharmD; Gebre-Egziabher Kiros, PhD

Comparison of Postdischarge Growth in Adequate for Gestational Age and Small for Gestational Age Very Low Birthweight Infants
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Maribel Campos, MD; Gloria Reyes, MD; Lourdes Garcý´a, MD

Differences among Male/Female Adolescents Participating in a School-Based Teenage Education Program (STEP) Focusing on HIV Prevention in India
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Rosy Chhabra, PsyD; Carolyn Springer, PhD; Bruce Rapkin, PhD; Yusuf Merchant, MD

Changes in Profile and Colorectal Cancer Stage over 15 Years in Puerto Rico
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Marinely Cruz-Amy, MD; Juan Serrano, MD; Ismael Labrador, MD; David Hernandez, MD; Diana M. Fernandez, MS, EdD; Rafael Quintana, MPH; Robert F. Hunter-Mellado, MD

Prevalence of Drug Resistance and Associated Mutations in HIV-Positive Puerto Ricans: Sex Variations
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Luis A. Cubano, PhD; Lycely del C. Sepu´lveda-Torres, PhD; Greychan Sosa, BS; Nawal Boukli, PhD; Rafaela Robles, EdD; Jose ´ W. Rodriguez, PhD; Lourdes Guzma´n, MT; Eddy Rý´os-Olivares, PhD

Dysphagia and Lung Aspiration Secondary to Anterior Cervical Osteophytes: a Case Report and Review of the Literature
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Wilfredo E. De Jesus-Monge, MD; Elsie I. Cruz-Cuevas, MD

Can Lessons Learned from a Cuban Experience Improve Health Disparities in South Los Angeles?
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Fred Dominguez, MD, MPH; Alex N. Ortega, PhD

Changes in HIV/AIDS Knowledge among Early Adolescents in Puerto
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Diana M. Ferna´ndez, EdD, MS; Wanda I. Figueroa, MD; Marý´a de los A. Go´mez, PhD; Johanna Maysonet, BHEd; Eddy Rios Olivares, PhD, MPH; Robert F. Hunter, MD

Association of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels and Body Mass Index in Overweight Hispanics in Puerto Rico
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Brunilda Figueroa, MS; Himilce Ve ´lez, MS; Margarita Irizarry-Ramý´rez, PhD

The Role of Translational Research in Addressing Health Disparities: a Conceptual Framework
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Erik S. Fleming, BA; James Perkins, PhD; David Easa, MD; Jose G. Conde, MD, MPH; Richard S. Baker, MD; William M. Southerland, PhD; Robert Dottin, PhD; Julio E. Benabe, MD; Elizabeth O. Ofili, MD, MPH; Vincent C. Bond, PhD; Shelia A. McClure, PhD; Michael H. Sayre, PhD; Maureen J. Beanan, PhD; Keith C. Norris, MD

Addressing Health Disparities through Multi-institutional, Multidisciplinary Collaboratories
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Erik S. Fleming, BA; James Perkins, PhD; David Easa, MD; Jose ´ G. Conde, MD, MPH; Richard S. Baker, MD; William M. Southerland, PhD; Robert Dottin, PhD; Julio E. Benabe, MD; Elizabeth O. Ofili, MD, MPH; Vincent C. Bond, PhD; Shelia A. McClure, PhD; Michael H. Sayre, PhD; Maureen J. Beanan, PhD; Keith C. Norris, MD

The Use of Folic Acid for the Prevention of Birth Defects in Puerto Rico
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Lourdes Garcý´a-Fragoso, MD; Ine´s Garcý´a-Garcý ´a, MD; Cynthia E. Rivera, MPH, MT

A Study of Knowledge, Attitude, and Sensitivity about HIV/AIDS among School Teachers in Northwestern Himalayas
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Shivnath Ghosh, PhD; Rosy Chhabra, PsyD; Carolyn Springer, PhD; Sunil Kumar Sharma, PhD

HIV/AIDS Prevention Practices among Recent-Immigrant Jamaican Women
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Marjorie Gillespie-Johnson, PhD

A Church-Based Program on Prostate Cancer Screening for African American Men: Reducing Health Disparities
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Baqar A. Husaini, PhD; Michelle C. Reece, MS; Janice S. Emerson, MS; Samuel Scales, MS; Pamela C. Hull, PhD; Robert S. Levine, MD

Global-World HIV/AIDS Alliance (GHAA): Charting Healthy Pathways for Vulnerable Populations
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James Samuel Maddirala, PhD; Rachel V. Gumbi, PhD; James Perkins, PhD; Sebastian Ousepperampil, PhD; Pamela D. Moore, MPP, JD; Loretta Jones, MA; Sidney McNairy, PhD, DSc; Keith C. Norris, MD

AIDS-Defining Neoplasm Prevalence in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients, before and after
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Angel M. Mayor, MD; Marý´a A.Go´mez, PhD; Eddy Rý´os-Olivares, PhD; Robert F. Hunter-Mellado, MD

The Feasibility and Acceptability of a Multimedia Hepatitis C Prevention Program for Hispanic HIV-Infected Persons
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Angel M. Mayor, MD; Diana M. Fernandez, EdD; Hector M. Colon, PhD; James C. Thomas, PhD; Robert F. Hunter-Mellado, MD

Testosterone Plays a Limited Role in Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference and Locomotor Activity in Male Rats
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Ana Christina E. Minerly, PhD; Scott J. Russo, PhD; Lynne M. Kemen, PhD; Arbi Nazarian, PhD; Hui Bing K. Wu, PhD; Karen M. Weierstall, PhD; Alaleh Akhavan, BA; Shirzad Jenab, PhD; Vanya Quinones-Jenab, PhD

Utilization of Health Services and Prescription Patterns among Lupus Patients Followed by Primary Care Physicians and Rheumatologists in Puerto Rico
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Marý´a J. Molina, MD; Angel M. Mayor, MD, MS; Alejandro E. Franco, MD; Carlos A. Morell, MS; Miguel A. Lopez, BS; Luis M. Vila ´,MD

Do African American Mothers Accurately Estimate Their Daughters’ Weight Category?
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Sandra E. Moore, MD, MSc; Charlie L. Harris, PhD; Petra Watson, BS; Yolanda Wimberly, MD, MSc

Prevalence of Breastfeeding among a Multiethnic Population in Hawaii
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Sylvia R. Pager, MD; James Davis, PhD; Rosanne Harrigan, EdD

Suicide Attempts among Puerto Rican Men and Women with HIV/AIDS: A Study of Prevalence and Risk Factors
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Rafael A. Quintana-Ortiz, MPH; Marý´a A. Gomez, PhD; Doris V. Ba´ez Feliciano, MS; Robert F. Hunter-Mellado, MD

Prevalence of Spondyloarthropathy in Puerto Rican Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
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Vanessa E. Rodriguez, MD; Pablo J. Costas, MD; Maria Vazquez, MD; Gilberto Alvarez, MD; Gladys Perez-Kraft, MD; Consuelo Climent, MD; Cruz Maria Nazario, PhD

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Status in Hispanic Women during the Menopause Transition
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Legier V. Rojas, PhD; Karen Nieves, MPH; Erick Suarez, PhD; Ana Patricia Ortiz, PhD, MPH; Amelia Rivera, PhD; Josefina Romaguera, MD, MPH

Subjective and Objective Measures of Socioeconomic Status: Predictors of Cardiovascular Risk in College Students in Mumbai, India
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Sonia Suchday, PhD; Rosy Chhabra, PsyD; Judith Wylie-Rosett, EdD; Maureen Almeida, MA, MPhil

Concerns about HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection among Low-Risk and High-Risk Women, Puerto Rico
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Rosimar Torres, MD; Cibel M. Hilerio, PhD(c); Georgina Silva, MPHE; Nyrma Y. Ortiz, PhD(c); Carmen D. Zorrilla, MD; Lydia E. Santiago, PhD

Disparities in Vision Impairment among Adults in the United
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Carmen J. Wilson, MD; George Rust, MD, MPH; Robert Levine, MD; Ernest Alema-Mensah, PhD

Followup after an Emergency Department Visit for Asthma: Urban/Rural Patterns
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Kelley Withy, MD; James Davis, PhD